Wednesday, March 25, 2020
Introduction A project is a temporary endeavor that is undertaken to produce a product or provide a service. Project management is an analysis that seeks to define how a particular project executes its operations, monitors the already executed operations, and how the executed operations are controlled (Kerzner 2010:14).Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Leadership and Motivating the Employees specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Any project has some requirements that are necessary for the successful completion of the project tasks; these requirements are commonly referred to as resources. Project resources are not standard since individual projects will call for different capital resources, human resource, scope, technological skills, and target market, among other factors. To accomplish the mission and vision a given project, the project must take into account the analysis of the scope, the financial requirem ent, as well as the short, middle, and long-term goals of the project. Most importantly, project management cannot thrive without adapting to leadership style that is congruent with the needs of the employees. The subsystems of the firm have to adjust to an effective organizational structure in order to facilitate success of the project. The effective integration of values can be achieved by leadership development, as this helps to highlight the changes that are taking place within a particular market segment. This study will be guided by one key question: is the issue of leadership an extremely complicated task while motivating the employees working in projects? Background Of The Study JovanovicÃ PetrovicÃ (2000) affirm that proper dissemination of project management plan should be provided to the employees in a manner that outlines vigilant steps, which point out the corresponding responsibilities, the person responsible for the task, the timeline for performing the task, a nd the expected output (Kerzner 2010: 23). However, the management of projects highly depends on the flow view theory, which seeks to eliminate the unforeseen risks (Hanisch et al. 2011). Additionally, the theory of value generation view is used in project management to facilitate an assessment of the clients prior to provision of goods and/or services. This theory substantiates that the needs of the clients should be viewed differently from the work process.Advertising Looking for research paper on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Thus, the project management should define the plan, the cost, the activities, the projectÃ¢â¬â¢s human and capital resources planning, and judgment of duration of time for the completion of the projects (Rad 2002: 36). An effective budgeting of the projectÃ¢â¬â¢s cost facilitates this, while an effective execution should define time and quality specification, as they are cri tical in ascertaining a projectÃ¢â¬â¢s sustainability. Controlling, on the other hand, should be designed in such a way that it is able to use performance reporting that executes corrections or overall change control that recommends changes at the planning procedure (Kerzner 2010:94). But while all the above are valid procedures and theories that aim at ensuring that projects achieve their main objectives, the strategy of using the resources and time constrains remains unconvincing, given that motivation plays a critical role in the performance of a project. Some of the key motivators include organizational hierarchies, relationship with the boss, working conditions, relationship with the peers, and recognition in the workplace (Miner 2007:158). However, these theories often seem challenging in the process of their implementation, making some organizational cultures disapprove their authenticity in the project management. This stems from the fact that different cultures have diffe rent opinions regarding the use of organizational theories in the projects. The United States, for case in point, believes that the use of hierarchy tends to break a projectÃ¢â¬â¢s task into smaller achievable and manageable task and find vertical leadership more appropriate, while the Asian culture, which believes in authority ranking, finds the vertical form of leadership more appropriate(Miner 2007:169). Thus, the Western culture manages their projects by encouraging employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ participation through brainstorming sessions as opposed to the some of the Asian cultures. These two perceptions need to be substantiated in order to come up with an effective management of projects.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Leadership and Motivating the Employees specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More But according to MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s Hierarchy of needs, organizations as well as peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s needs change overtime, and therefore, employee motivation is a continuous practice rather than a task (Miner 2007:177). Thus, a good motivation theory for projects should involve finding new ways of motivating their employees. It is imperative to note that a number of factors associated with the leadership/ managerial practice may lead to higher than necessary rates of departure prior to ending the projectÃ¢â¬â¢s contracts. Key among them include restricted motivation, insufficient socialization, cases where employees feel discriminated, exempted from making decisions that regard them, insufficient levels of commitment, and lesser acceptance (Miner 2007:142). There are some empirical studies reporting on the experiences of leaders taking the role of motivation to explain the complexities of projects with regard to productivity (Miner 2007:69). Some of the studies also link the motivation role mostly to management outcomes. These studies contribute to a research gap on the importance of the managersÃ¢â ¬â¢ role in improving project management processes and outcomes based on data from a qualitative perspective. The results enhance leadership knowledge by providing another perspective of the managerÃ¢â¬â¢s role with implications on the acceptability and viability of employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ participation. Methodology Purpose of Study The purpose of this qualitative study is to investigative whether the issue of motivating employees is an extremely complicated task in project management. Using a qualitative study allows a thorough investigation of the research problem because it collects data on the accounts and descriptions of employers as well as employees working in a construction project (Creswell 2003:183). The research design involves causal investigation of the research problem by using a wide range of resources (Yin, 2006). Thus, the causal relationship investigated involves linking leadership and motivation with the productivity of a construction project. The study answers one k ey question: is the issue of motivating employees an extremely complicated task in project management? This question draws insight into the challenges surrounding the leadership role as they seek to motivate employees working in projects.Advertising Looking for research paper on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Design of the Study The study employs the qualitative method. This method applies to studies that require in-depth investigation of accounts and descriptions of the research problem studied (Creswell 2003:194). This included companyÃ¢â¬â¢s structure, the work processes involved, and the relationships between the employees, as well as the relationship between the employees and the managers. This is the appropriate method because it is able to investigate how important motivation is in improving project management process and outcomes based on qualitative data. While the study also involves variables, the intention is to determine the importance of the role of leadership to the employees in the construction project, and not to measure the relationship of variables. The research design involves an in-depth inquiry into a single finding by using multiple data sources to provide understanding of the multiple factors attributed to the research problem (Yin 2006). This supports a thoroug h investigation of the research problem, as it uses a wide range of data collection methods, including document analysis, interviews, archival research, and observation. The selection of the sources was carried out in a manner that interconnects all the theories of leadership and management, and therefore facilitated an effective analysis that created room for understanding how they motivate the employees differently. The primary data, on the other hand, was obtained from the employees working in a construction project Data Collection The data collection method for the secondary sources was carried out by determining the scope of the research and then defining the extent to which management and leadership theories influence employees working in projects. This was followed by determining the evidence that demonstrates the challenges facing the leadership theories and frameworks while motivating the employees towards achieving the goals of the projects. Finally, the researcher organiz ed the ideas collected from the secondary sources, including textbooks as well as from the journals articles. These ideas worked as the background for the questionnaire provided in the case study. Results of the Study The primary data revealed that the construction project has already adopted modern communication technology in an effort to facilitate effective communication between the employees, as well as between the employees and the clients, due to tight working schedule and a high turnover of customers. This strategy, however, is faced with challenges due to poor company structure and work processes such as lack of prioritizing projectÃ¢â¬â¢s information due to huge number of emails, presence of scattered data due to saving data in diverse formats, low levels of email security , ambiguity due to unclear terms used for productsÃ¢â¬â¢ descriptions, and work overlap between the workers. The findings obtained from the qualitative design are consistent with the FiedlerÃ¢â¬â¢s contingency model as they portray that employees working in projects would only be motivated if the leaders put much emphasis on organizational culture that seeks to achieve organizational goals through close human relations (Daft Marcic 2010: 196). This stems from the fact that the model provides a link in the organizational structure as the go-between of management and employees. More so, the model helps the employees increase a sense of accountability for their tasks since they have already developed a sense of confidence with their leader. This model is imperative since it introduces the employees to a thorough analysis that facilitates definition of how a particular project executes its operations, monitors the already executed operations, and defines how these operations are controlled through teamwork amongst the employees (Daft Marcic 2010: 197). More so, using this model helps the leaders express confidence on the subordinatesÃ¢â¬â¢ abilities to learn how to share great information with their leaders. And in this regard, the leader advices the subordinates to learn how to focus on results by providing them with tips on how best they can acquire expected results based on teamwork. This claim is supported by HerzbergÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of motivation, which states that a good relationship between workers, as well as between the workers and the managers, serves as a key motivator towards the employees (Miner 2007: 183). However, according to Kerzner (2010: 95), adopting a theory that is relationship oriented does not motivate task-oriented workers, simply because relationship oriented models are vulnerable to teamwork discrepancies. This translates that one or two members of a team will not work, and hence, others will be working for such an individual(s). Additionally, adopting relationship-oriented leadership does not help because at the end of the day, evaluation of the projectÃ¢â¬â¢s employees goes back to an individual level as opposed to a teamwo rk level. Therefore, each individual has to undergo self-reflection to establish his/her contribution towards the success of the project. Kerzner (2010: 98) affirms that employees working in projects are always looking for individual recognition and that employees who do not attest to this fact are ordinary performers who are fond of preferring teamwork because they do not want the public to know that they do not have many talents at an individual level. This idea, therefore, complicates the role of leadership in motivating the employees working in a project. Additionally, the study used the HezbergÃ¢â¬â¢s theory to highlight how leaders can motivate employees working in projects by exploring the extent to which employees can be motivated by job enrichment as well as job rotation. And while the primary sources revealed that a project could only acquire a good leader/ employee relationship when the leader is charismatic as opposed to autocratic, Miner (2007: 210) affirms that motiv ating employees depends entirely on the character of the employees. In this regard, the employees from group X necessitate carrot and stick motivation, while employees from group Y necessitate recognition and job enrichments as the prime motivators. All these show that using leadership theories to motivate employees is an extremely complicated task in project management. Limitations of the Study Even though the research attempted to employ casual investigation of the problem by using a user-friendly approach that would encouraged the participants to be honest with each other, the research study was still imperfect because some respondents proved to be unresponsive. This was more evident when it came to discussing the AdamÃ¢â¬â¢s equity model, perhaps due to the sensitivity of this area because some responses could be termed at discrimination following unfair judgments of other peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s inabilities. Conclusion/ Recommendations For Future Leadership Strategies For A Project F rom the finding presented in this paper, it is clear that the use of leadership theories to motivate employees is an extremely complicated task in project management. However, despite the challenges faced with leadership in an effort to motivate the employees working in projects, effective leadership calls for a close cooperation between the employees and the leaders/ managers of the organization. It is from this cooperation that the leaders demonstrate full responsibility of assessing the key motivators of the employees. Thus, evaluating the future strategy of leadership potential in the project should bring rise to a number of questions: what are the theories of leadership/management that the workers consider as motivators? What do employees anticipate as some of the disadvantages that would result from such theories? And most importantly, what do employees anticipate as some of the advantages that would result from such theories and frameworks. The answers to these questions shou ld be achieved through a brainstorming session comprising of employees who have dissimilar theoretical backgrounds relative to motivation. This emanates from the fact that a project management is greatly enhanced by leaders who adopt a leadership style of sharing their personal knowledge and opinions with all their employees (Mears 2009:57). Through sharing of views, the management should realize that one of the main challenges experienced by a project while coming up with a new line of business is inadequate training that would ensure the employees take the upcoming jobs. However, this challenge can be countered by adopting a talent development approach, which takes into account that projects should always assess the talents of its employees in order to outline the level of competence along the new line of operation. Therefore, the management should encourage the employees to develop their skills before the actual shift occurs, as this helps to eradicate fear and resistance to the proposed vision of the project. This can be achieved through a performance management program, which should be characterized by the following feature: standardization, validity and conciseness, and due process. In standardization, the ideal performance management system requires that the aspects of performance measured are uniform and there is a constant level of strictness in its operations. (Kerzner 2010: 114). This is meant to ensure that employees do not loose faith in their managers and the system that might result from variations, such as unreasonable teamwork. According to Kerzner (2010:123), validity and conciseness translates that evaluation criterion of every employee is done only on issues that regard their line of work, as this would serve to motivate the workers who view work itself as the key motivator. Due process, on the other hand, should endeavour to motivate employees who are lowly rated by giving them set guidelines that dictate the appraisal of good performers w ith high salary increases and bonuses should they improve their performance. List Of References Creswell, J. W. 2003. Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage. Daft, R., Marcic, D. 2010. Understanding Management. Independence, KY, Cengage Learning. Hanisch, B., Wald, A., Project Management Institute. 2011. A project management research framework integrating multiple theoretical perspectives and influencing factors. Project Management Journal 42(3). JovanovicÃ , P., PetrovicÃ , D. 2000. Project management and multiproject management in a company. Senet Project Management Review (1)1, 34-43. Kerzner, H. 2010. Project management best practices: Achieving global excellence. Hoboken, N.J., John Wiley Sons. Mears, M. 2009. Leadership elements: A guide to building trust. New York, iUniverse. Miner, J. 2007. Organizational Behavior: From theory to practice, Volume 4. Armonk, NY, M.E Sharpe Publishers. Rad, P. 2002. P roject estimating and cost management. Management Concepts, Vienna, Va. Yin, R. K. 2006. Case study research: Design and methods. Thousand Oaks, Calif, Sage. This research paper on Leadership and Motivating the Employees was written and submitted by user Jesse Delaney to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Friday, March 6, 2020
Margaret Thatcher society today Essay Example Margaret Thatcher society today Essay Margaret Thatcher society today Essay During the play you get the notion that money rules all. As well as the classes, which are judged on amounts of money, there is a strong sense of money = life. This is shown when the inspector questions Mrs Burling about Eva Smith. When Eva Smith falls pregnant Eric, the father also son to Mrs Burling, realises money is needed and steals some from his father. Mrs Burling states, not knowing Eric has done this, that the decent thing the father should do is marry her, therefore giving her money. Mr Burling also thinks highly of money as he tries to pay the minimum wages to his factory workers therefore earning himself more. At the beginning of act one he talks about how it would be a good idea if his company and Geralds fathers should combined. This idea of his is truly based on how much money he can earn himself. Mrs Burling also seems to crave money, but tries to give you the impression that she is innocent. She tries to shush Mr Burling when he brings this up at the dining table and later suggests that they should talk in private. Now Arthur, I dont think you should talk business just quite now. In An Inspector Calls it is noticeable that everything that J. B. Priestley either features or makes fun of happens today. Today there is prostitution, a big blame society and class structures. Money also plays a big part in the world today. You often see lots of people selling big issues. When a man of middle class walks past someone like this the initial reaction is Why are they there, what have they done to make themselves so low. Often people dont want to give money to them or even buy the magazine because people think theyre just going to use it to buy drugs etc. At the end of the play J. B. Priestley makes you think about how you have the urge you to improve society. Margaret Thatcher said in 1980 There is no society today. The youth at the end of the play provide some hope for society in their actions. This play is very clever and this is why it has remained so popular. I think that the drama of the play also plays a big part in why An Inspector Calls has remained so popular. J. B. Priestley said to make a good drama you have to cut out all the drink mixing etc and get on with the storyline. In the world today there is an element of how we like to feel somewhat clever and superior to others. This features in the play when Mrs Burling is talking about how the father of the baby is to blame and how he should be sent down for this. She says I blame the father for everything end of act two. Of course during her speech the audience have actually acknowledged who the father is and sits there just waiting for Mrs Burling to discover this as well. We like to see and enjoy a dislikeable character reduce down to size. When Sheila manages to get a word in she confronts her mother about Eric being the father and the guilt sets in. When Eric appears on the scene Mrs Burling tries to make up excuses for what shes said and looks for a scapegoat. But I didnt know it was you- I never dreamt. Besides, youre not the type- you dont get drunk. This cleverness and reducing the character down to size appeals to us and therefore make us want to watch more. During An Inspector Calls the characters talk about other people in the town and shops, bar etc. This gives the audience knowledge that there are more people other than the main characters involved with the play. It shows that the characters on stage arent the only people in the world. Each character has a main key to them, Mr Burling is a man mostly obsessed with money, Mrs Burling a woman who blames others, Eric a bit of a womaniser and Sheila a hopeful yet jealous person. By mentioning other people J. B. Priestley is trying to get the audience to realise that there is, for example, more than one money grubber in the world and perhaps we are all guilty sometimes of these things. This is a clever way of getting the audience involved and almost being part of the play. In an interview J . B. Priestly talked about this and said how it was important to include the world around them in the play because otherwise it makes the play seem totally based on the characters as if they are the only people on this world. J. B. Priestleys An Inspector Calls is a play mainly based around a family. It shows how they cope with whichever situation is thrown at them. During the play the characters snap and try to blame each other and Mr Burling, for example, becomes agitated. The audience become addicted and like the idea of watching characters dealing with difficult situations. Its quite pleasurable, I think, for the audience to watch each one of the characters suffer in a different way. The play then rapidly becomes realistic as people today probably react the same way as some of the characters. Individuals today become addicted to this type of play and modern versions a bit like An Inspector Calls are seen today. Programs like Big Brother and My Family are exact copies but with modern twists. In the play J. B. Priestly uses quite a lot of dramatic irony. He has cleverly crafted his story line so that it carries you part of the way and then suddenly drops you at the end. Up until nearly the end you know whats going to happen and realize that the inspector is a fake. Once the audience has understood the storyline there is an element of satisfaction as you think you know the storyline. Its not until the end when there is a telephone call saying there had been a suicide that you begin to wonder. The authors use of dramatic irony at the beginning is skilful, as it draws you into the play. When Mr Burling talks about how great the Titanic is and how there is never going to be war, you feel superior as you know that Mr Burlings knowledge is not very reliable. Mr Burling says: Therell be peace and prosperity and the Titanic- unsinkable. It also intrigues you about whats going to happen because of the characters lack of knowledge. Dramatic Irony also features when Mrs Burling accuses the father, of Eva Smiths baby, as irresponsible and a drunken young idler. In the play J. B. Priestley uses just a touch of humour. This enables the audience to relax more and become part of the play. By using humour it lightens the play and makes it more enjoyable for the audience. The type of humour J. B. Priestley uses is little amounts and sparingly. It breaks up the serious ideas in the play and allows the audience to digest the drama easily. The humour mostly features in the part played by the Inspector. I think this is because the audience envisage the inspector as quite a stern man. Like the storyline, Priestly has done this to allow the audience to digest him easily. The inspector says lines like We didnt think you meant Buckingham Palace and I dont play golf, its a shame. Finally J. B. Priestleys An Inspector calls, I think, tries to convey one important message to its audience; Helping others is the key to success. The play shows a very Christian message of how we need to make todays society better and to prove Margaret Thatchers saying wrong, and perhaps the views of Mr Burling, that there is no such thing as society. An Inspector Calls is a play which reaches out through the inspector to its audience. The inspector, a very careful but weighty man, shows us that there isnt a need in this world for jealously, shameful secrets or class structures. Through interrogating the rest of the characters he unveils each of their problems and shows us how it is wrong. An Inspector Calls has the ability to engross its audience and to educate them at the same time. It shows us that the lessons we learn from watching and reading this play may make us want to try and rebuild society today.
Wednesday, February 19, 2020
Press release - Article Example NGO under Penal Reform aims at training prison staff on a number of areas. Areas of interest range from rehabilitation priority to discrimination reduction as well as incorporating respect for humanity when handling prisoners. The prison law enforcing officers will get training on the legislative reforms that seek to improve legal precautionary measure for prisoners. It is also the mandate of the NGO during the process to develop proper and appropriate training curricula for prison law enforcing officers. It will as well provide prison staff with technical assistance to training in conflict resolution. At that time, the prison staff will get an opportunity to understand the need to apply other human right friendly methods of discipline. Training prison staff will provide other possible alternatives to corporal punishment to inmates. Alternatives such as services to the community, working in the government farms among others. Prison staff will also acquire special training on how and when to receive complaints from the prisoner as well as addressing them amicably. The NGO also seeks to promote the standard principle organization that protects all persons under any form of detention. The NGO has also laid down foundation to raise public awareness about prison population and its composition. Based on its plan, the NGO intends to take into account the affairs of vulnerable groups and harmful impacts of imprisonment. The detainees will have a chance to understand their rights and give them the advantage of pre-trial detention or imprisonment. The prison wardens should also learn during the training that the post-conflict areas need a healing and reconciliation mechanisms. Healing and reconciliation process does not encourage brutal means of handling inmates. The NGO further wishes to announce its collaboration with other stakeholders to secure funds
Tuesday, February 4, 2020
The utilization of Furlough days to combat budget issues - Research Paper Example From the research it is clear that the organizational practice involves forecasting and determining the major drawbacks that may hinder effective performance of employees and finding a lasting solution. Human resource management entails measures for improving the workplace environment, recruitment, performance and reward management among other activities that enhance the productivity of employees. Organizations maintain competitiveness through inventiveness and uniqueness in their operations. These are accomplished through maintenance of a committed and competent work force. High commitment among employees is important in ensuring customer satisfaction. When an organization succeeds in maintaining competence and satisfaction among employees, it is able to maintain strong customer relationships as well as a strong brand image. These are among the aspects that determine an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s productivity since happy employees are satisfied employees, who are able to own the organiza tional goal. Strategic human resource management involves supporting the employees to help in establishing organizational goals. Organizations that engage in employee training and supporting innovative ideas are usually competitive in the market. Strategic human resource management helps in accomplishing employee satisfaction. More over, it helps in maintaining skilled workers in the organization. However, an organization may be faced with budget issues that may hinder the accomplishment of human resource management strategies. This paper presents a critique of the utilization of Furlough days to combat budget issues. Utilization of Furlough Days Furlough days negatively affect the morale of employees due to the breaks in their day to day activities as they are ordered to take compulsory unpaid leaves. Even though employees maintain permanent employment in an organization, the practice may be frustrating to many since it decreases their income. Depending on the nature of the budget deficit, furlough days may be scheduled for a number of days per month or one day per week until the financial shortfall is dealt with. While an organization focuses on the shortfalls in its budget, the workload increases and employees have to be overworked to cover the days that they do not work (Whitfield & Poole, 1997). Schrader & Lawless (2004) observe that while losing the job completely may be more frustrating to the employees, the regular loss of income and employment benefits through furlough days may cause resentment and the urge to look for an alternative job and hence a high employee turn over. High employee turn over is detrimental to an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s productivity and reputation. It is usually costly to hire and train new employees to become competent in the workplace. The organization looses skilled employees to competitors, and more so, skills attained from the organization (Buller & McEvoy, 2012). It may be a great loss to the organization especially when an e mployee exposes company information to competitors (Luthans & Stajkovic, 1999). The future projections may not be realized if the organization relied on training an employee to attain a particular goal in future. Customers may loose confidence in the organization due to disruption in service delivery especially when the departing employees were at strategic positions of service delivery. Other customers build their trust on particular employees especially for the services that require one-on-one relationships (Huselid & Becker, 2011). Human resource managers need to ensure that the employee turn ove
Monday, January 27, 2020
New British Library And Bps Andrew Field Development Construction Essay The construction industry is one of the best industry in the world for delivering excellence in result. In United Kingdom we have a fantastic heritage of excellence in construction going back to Victorian times with the remarkable achievements of great engineers. But there has long been a recognition that there is considerable scope for improvement in the way construction projects are delivered. Back in the 1980s clients complained about performance of the industry, the industry complained about clients and a strong belief that we the public were not getting value for money! The industry was characterised by poorly performing projects, dissatisfied clients, poor quality end product, adversarial relationships between buyers and suppliers, low profit margins and a claims culture, lack of investment in people and a poor health and safety record. Public sector project in particular were inevitably delivered late, costing far in excess of what was originally estimated, and often did not meet peoples expectations in terms of performance, aesthetics or lifecycle. To drive culture change we must move beyond construction to a broader vision of the built environment , leveraging performance in other parts of the economy to deliver better quality of life in housing, transport, health, educationÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦..etc. Recognising that the relatively small up front construction cost has a big impact on overall business costs and ultimate value to the user. the social and environmental outcomes. Focus on the environment we must be a sustainability leader and adopt carbon efficiency. A green recovery from the current recession is required. Such that young people who want a better world can fulfil their aims by joining the industry to deliver a low carbon economy Find a cohesive voice for the industry. Institutions must collaborate to represent the industry to government and other stakeholders. Focus on how we can help reduce government costs Adopt new business models find ways to incentives long term value creation Develop new leaders who can communicate their vision and drive culture change Integrate education and training to promote a wider understanding of the built environment. Procure for value rather than lowest price procurement process needs to be more professionally managed Suppliers take the lead in demonstrating how they can create additional value New British Library Aim of British Library The aim of British Library is to serve scholarship, research and enterprise. Their purpose to promote the advancement in knowledge through the communication of information and ideas. In order to achieve this they identify and respond to users needs for a national library services; build, catalogue and conserve the collection; provide entry to the worlds knowledge base; provide leadership and initiate co-operative programmes for the national and international research library community; and exploit their collections in enterprising ways to raise support for their activities. Source: The British Library Corporate Plan 1995 Development of British Library The concept of British Library was established in 1982, the construction of first phase was started at St Pancras. At the early stage their was no budget for complete project and the cost approved phase by phase. This was not an efficient practice for management. In 1988 Minister was agreed for Ã £300 millions as a cash target for phase 1A and also Ã £150 millions for completion phase. In 1991, the former Committee of public Accounts were critical of the serious lapses in the management control and accountability of the project and elected the management arrangements to be monitored closely. The government accepted the main findings of committee and confirmed that the expected completion of new building will held on 1996 with in the cash limit of Ã £450 millions but in November minister increased cash limit to Ã £496 millions. It was expected that the whole building should be completed in 1996 but the completion and handover dates of phase 1A changed three times since July 1991, in 1993 phase 1A was planned for operational in the middle of the year but the phase was completed in November 1995 but no part of the building is now expected to open until October 1997.the completion target date of phase 1A was slipped because of identify and resolve technical problems with the book shelving, in order to find out how to deal with cabling damages during installation, how to deal with short comings in the fire protection systems, and to implement remedial works. BPs North Sea Andrew Field Development Proposed Idea Development In 1974 Andrew was discovered in 1974 in 230 km NE of Aberdeen in 115 m water depth, a relatively small complex reservoir, with estimated 112million barrels of oil and 3.8 billion cu m of gas. It was proposed for development a number of times between 1981 and 1988 but always commercially unattractive. By 1991 collaborative team work had solved the gas management plan incorporating gas export and re-injection into the reservoir. BP themselves were not sure of the steps needed to reach their goal and had to hold fast to their vision. They wanted the facilities contractors on board at the pre-sanction stage for them to establish an early sense of ownership and to work on reducing the unacceptably high cost estimate of Ã £450m. BP moved away from a traditional tendering process and developed a set of 10 new criteria the Minimum Conditions of Satisfaction (MCOS) against which they would judge prospective candidates. The tender document at only 50 pages was the slimmest ever produced for a major new Offshore development. Brown Root recognised that BP was serious and came up with its own response to BPs Minimum Conditions Of Satisfaction that would change behaviour and reduce cost foremost of these was an end to man to man marking on the project limiting the client team to 20 and truly integrating them was part of the delivery of the project. Contractors were cautious especially with the MCOS requiring that the development cost be limited to Ã £270m. Temporary grillage steelwork to support the structure during fabrication and load out was reduced from 1100T to 300T saving Ã £260k. An example of further cooperation between design and fabrication was that the design team produced drawings for fabrication. Usually 300 primary drawings would be produced. Instead only 30 were needed with all fabrication drawings directly produced from the CAD model saving 12000 man-hours. At sanction the estimated man hours for jacket fabrication were 580,000 which was reduced to 500,000 by reduction in work scope. However, by smarter working motivated by the cooperative atmosphere and culture of the Alliance, Andrews Jacket was built for less than 440,000 man hours. Sanction estimates, based on other typical projects, was 78 man hours/tonne The final outcome for Andrew was 66 man hours/tonne. As different contractors would be working under different payment methods reimbursed costs with fixed overhead and profit and fixed lump sum prices there was concern that although joint commitment was required under the risk and reward gain share system, one party might not have influence over another in achieving the target cost. Target cost finalised in Nov 93 at Ã £373m which included Ã £39m contingency approx 20% reduction in price had been achieved. And first oil 3 months early, by Sep 96 Way the Both Projects Delivered In the contrast of both the projects like ;New British Library and BPs North Sea Andrew Field Development s project both started almost on same time and having same magnitude of cost. In the case of British Library, time and cost of project both over runs. the performance and specification of complex systems need to be settle down early during design, the library believed that they were justified in revisiting basic features of the design when construction was well advanced. In their project they did not arranged quality people like architects and other professionals because they provide the financial incentive to complete projects on time and with in budget. there was unclear definition of responsibilities for inspections between Laing, the design team, and the clerks of works. Their had been insufficient planning, resulting in sufficient time being allowed for inspections. Guidance on handover procedures had been confused, their were poor identification and recording of items to be rectified or still outstanding. As a result, there had been uncertainty over the amount of work still to be done before an area could be handed over also uncertainty over what bookshelving contractors were contracted to provide: records of technical discussions and agreement were not readily accessible. As far as BPs North Sea Andrew Field Development s project was concern a totally integrated team approach was done with a gain share mechanism to share risk and reward. The idea of behavioural change as an essential ingredient for success had taken hold following feedback from another BP project which suggested that the much discussed benefits of alliancing could bear fruit if managed correctly. They defined their roles, strategies and principles. They concentrated on their performance and specification during the project. They delivered their project on time because they monitored the technical issues, accidental issues and weather issues that is why the project finish on time and with in the targeted cost as well Recommendations Bibliography Refrences Constructing the Team (The Latham Report) (July 1994) Rethinking Construction (The Egan Report) (Dec 1998) NAO Report HC362: Progress in Completing the New British Library (15 May 1996) Lecture notes for EPM 934 Lecture 5 (available on City Space)
Saturday, January 18, 2020
Mandatory military service for all 18-year-old citizens would improve patriotism and discipline within the United States. Furthermore, by mandating military service the country could virtually assure that it would no longer have issues of insufficient troops for conflicts around the world. A mandatory term of military service would also help create a sense of national identity that the United States is lacking. Mandatory military service would also probably contribute to the health of the nation. Finally, mandatory military service would delay the entry of young adults into college, perhaps reducing the number of people who begin college and immediately drop out because they are unclear about their career options. Since the end of the Vietnam conflict, the United States has had mandatory selective service registration for men, but has never instituted registration for women. One of the keys to effectively implementing this program is to make certain that it is applied equally to both sexes. Strangely, this might do more to establish equal rights than the Equal Rights Amendment or pro-womenÃ¢â¬â¢s movement ever did. Many men seem to resent the idea that women want equal rights in the workplace, but are unwilling to demand equal responsibility for the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s safety. Ã Many men and women feel that if people are going to claim equality than they should face equal lifestyles, so the most important factor of mandatory military service would be that it be for all citizens. Another way to avoid conflict over the mandatory military service idea would be for the service to be mandatory for all citizens. There could not be National Guard exemptions or exemptions for education or any other reason. If any hint of favoritism marred the program, it would lose much of its effectiveness. Obviously, not all people would be fit for combat duty, but everyone would have to be assigned duties according to their abilities. Less physically able soldiers might be assigned to kitchen duty or translating or stateside duties, but everyone should have to serve. Perhaps, given the sheer numbers of recruits that would suddenly be available, people assigned to combat regions could be given shorter terms of service than those who for health reasons or skill reasons could not serve in a combat zone. Finally, once the particulars of the program were ironed out, mandatory military service for every 18-year-old would improve patriotism and discipline within the United States. Currently, many 18-year-olds do not have the discipline necessary to survive a semester of college without parental supervision. Many take for granted the freedoms that have been fought for and won by veterans of previous wars. By making military service mandatory, citizens would be forced to learn to appreciate the way those freedoms came to be. Generally, people appreciate something more if they have to fight to get it. And, the discipline taught in boot camp would help get many people passed the pseudo-weakness currently inherent in American society.Ã Because of the fear of injury, zero tolerance policies and even anti-bullying propaganda across the country, many American citizens do not have any clue how to be competitive or disciplined. In short, they have allowed to become soft. Putting them all through boot camp would make them stronger individuals and better citizens. One of the drawbacks of the all volunteer military has been the lack of recruits. Several times during the Iraq War the Pentagon has extended the tours of duty of certain soldiers because there were not sufficient replacements available to send in to take their place. With a steady stream of 18-year-olds forced to enter the military, the military could allow all soldiers to serve shorter tours in combat zones and allow the professional military to do their jobs without worrying about the number of soldiers that they have to do the job. In addition, more people might discover that they like military service as a career option. It would allow high school graduates to put aside money for college with a good-paying job, or begin training for a better career. In some ways, the military could replace vocational schools and persons seeking a career in fields traditionally learned in vocational colleges could get on the job training, saving the country on student loans and creating a new, highly trained workforce. One of the most recent factors facing the United States has been the lack of a national identity. Persons from New York often have little in common with people from southern California and there is little shared national identity.Ã The problem with being a melting pot is that each individual has a person heritage that is not necessarily the same as their neighborÃ¢â¬â¢s. Mandatory military service might help to alleviate this problem without destroying cultural diversity. People would still have their own state or cultural identity, but an entire generation of American citizens would share the experience of military service. Strangers would at least have their military service in common, creating a bond between all citizens of the country. In addition, mandatory military service would probably improve the overall health of the nation.Ã Instead of a generally obese nation, the youth of the country would at least be required to get in shape long enough to pass basic training. And, if military service was mandatory and there were no exceptions, one of the drawbacks of not passing basic training the first time around could be an extension of their service. For example, if a young smoker could not give up the addiction long enough to pass the running and stamina requirements of basic training, instead of being sent home as a Ã¢â¬Å"wash outÃ¢â¬ , he would receive remedial training which did not count towards his service commitment. In fact, the service commitment would not begin until basic training was completed, so a person could spend years getting into shape if necessary, but would know that the cost was the delay in getting on with their lives. Finally, mandatory military service would delay the college entrance age, perhaps leading to students who are more prepared for the college experience before investing the time and money in their education. Generally, it is accepted that non-traditional students are more committed to getting their education than the average 18-year-old. If students were forced to have even a two-year mandatory military service, they would be forced to become adults before going to college. As it is, many students entering college are not ready to be on their own. A transition period between living under their parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ roof and sudden and complete freedom might help students be more prepared for the responsibility of college. In addition, many 18-year-olds entering college for the first time have absolutely no clue what they wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t to do with their lives. Many flounder in their first attempt at college and because they are so unprepared for the new lifestyle. Mandatory military service might help people to reach the proper maturity level before going on to college to know what they want to do with their lives. It is likely also to help deal with some of the issues facing college campuses across the country, including alcohol use. By requiring mandatory military service, the overall median age of college students would increase and students might be less attracted to the thrill of underage drinking. It seems unlikely that mandatory military service would be adopted in the United States.Ã Politicians would not have the gumption to make the changes necessary to the military to make the program work, nor would they be willing to risk political suicide by considering such a thing. Opponents of the draft, including conscientious objectors who fled to other countries when the country last had mandatory military service would not be willing to force people into service. Historians would argue that the country was won by volunteer fighters and that conscription was one of the things Revolutionary War veterans were fighting against. Pacifists would argue that military service somehow contrary to the beliefs of some citizens and the politically correct crowd would try to argue that not everyone should have to serve. Mandatory military service would create the final equality that American citizens have been clamoring for and would improve the health of the nation. Boot camp would help fight the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s obesity problems and equal opportunity service would help fight the economic disparity growing in the United States.Ã The unifying factors of common service would help establish a national identity and increase the patriotism of the average American. Spoiled brat teenagers would learn to appreciate the things that they have been allowed to take for granted and college campuses would become more civil, adult places where students could study and learn instead of simply enjoying drunken parties. Colleges would be filled with students who were ready and eager to learn and military vocational training could lead to an overall improvement in the job skills of the nation. However, the plan generally goes against every belief in freedom the country was founded on and will never happen.
Friday, January 10, 2020
Theory X In this theory, management assumes employees are inherently lazy and will avoid work if they can. Because of this, workers need to be closely supervised and comprehensive systems of controls developed. According to this theory, employees will show little ambition without an enticing incentive program and will avoid responsibility whenever they can. The Theory X manager tends to believe that everything must end in blaming someone. Furthermore, Theory X supervisors cannot trust any employee, and they reveal this to their support staff via their communications constantly. Theory X managers naturally adopt a more authoritarian style based on the threat of punishment. One major flaw of this management style is it is much more likely to cause Diseconomies of Scale in large businesses. Ã Theory Y In this theory, management assumes employees may be ambitious, self-motivated, and anxious to accept greater responsibility, and exercise self-control, self-direction, autonomy, and empowerment. It is believed that employees enjoy their mental and physical work duties. It is also believed that if given the chance employees have the desire to be creative and forward thinking in the workplace. There is a chance for greater productivity by giving employees the freedom to perform at the best of their abilities without being bogged down by rules. A Theory Y manager believes that, given the right conditions, most people will want to do well at work and that there is a pool of unused creativity in the workforce. Application of theory X and Y in the US Navy Almost every organization, adopts either theory X or Y in managing their employees or workforce. The application of any one of these theories depends on the culture of the organization, the attitude of managers towards their employees and vise-versa and the personalities of both employers and employees. The US Navy is not an exception to these management practices and applications. When the Navy recruits individuals, they usually apply Theory X. At this stage, they adopt a more authoritarian style based on the threat of punishment. The supervisorsÃ¢â¬â¢ believe that the recruits are inherently lazy and will train if they can. They should be closely supervised and comprehensive systems of controls should be put in place in their training camps. At this stage, it is believed that the recruits will try to avoid responsibility whenever they can. The supervisors cannot trust the recruits and they reveal this to them through their communication constantly. Theory X continues to be applied in the Navy even after the recruits have passed and have been incorporated in the navy. They continue receiving orders from their commanders and supervisors. Theory Y is applied in the US navy once an individual climbs the ladder and becomes the commander or supervisor. At this stage, it is assumed that the commanders/supervisors are ambitious, self-motivated, and anxious to accept greater responsibility, exercise self-control, self-direction, and autonomy and are empowered. At this stage, the supervisors enjoy their mental and physical work duties. They have the desire to be creative and move forward. Given the right conditions, they will always want to do well at work and use their creativity in bettering the Navy operations. Even though these approaches are, what are commonly used, the US Navy should try to apply theory Z. This theory is good, since it welcomes a more human and more effective way of managing people. It offers a long term, often lifetime employment, with a high value placed on mutual loyalty. Promotion in this case is relatively slow and specialized career paths for individuals and the development of specific skills is encouraged. This approach emphasizes decision by consensus and insists on individual responsibility. It is also preferred since it places attention to the welfare of subordinates as well as encourage informal relationships among individuals. How do your two scores relate to your experience at work? In theory x is visible in most organizations. We find employees not ready to work unsupervised thus need for supervisors to monitor their activities. Managers on the other hand do not trust their employees and they usually carry out check up on them. In theory y we find employees when left alone to work they are likely to be more productive. What motivates individuals to put forth effort on the job? Motivation is reasons for engaging in a particular behavior, especially human behavior. These reasons may include basic needs such as food or a desired object, hobbies, goal, state of being, or ideal. The motivation for a behavior may also be attributed to less-apparent reasons such as altruism or morality. What motivates people include things like money, praise, rewards, and opportunities to make decisions and be creative. Content theories include: How are people motivated on the job? People can be motivated by; positive reinforcement or high expectations, effective discipline and punishment, treating people fairly, satisfying employees needs, setting work related goals, restructuring jobs, base rewards on job performance. Ã REFERENCES MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s hierarchy of needs: Psychology Ã¢â¬â The Search for Understanding by Janet A. Simons, Donald B. Irwin, and Beverly A. Drinnien.West Publishing Company, New York, 1987. http://www.accel-team.com/motivation/ Colman, Andrew M. Behavioral Science. Oxford University Press, 2001. Foulks Lynch. ACCA Paper 1.3 Managing People. Ashford Press Ltd, 2005. Ã